Nickel and nickel alloys are non-ferrous metals with high strength and toughness, excellent corrosion resistance, and superior elevated temperature properties. Products differ in terms of composition, grade, shape, dimensions, and features. Commercially pure, unalloyed, or very low alloy nickel does not contain or contains only very small amounts of alloying elements. By contrast, nickel alloys contain significant amounts of added elements or constituents. Clad or bimetal stock consists of two different alloys that are bonded integrally together. Metal matrix composites have a composite or reinforced metal or alloy matrix filled with a second component, which may be in particulate, chopped fiber, continuous filament, or fabric form. Other unlisted, specialty or proprietary nickel and nickel alloys are also available. These materials are often based on a unique alloy system, use a novel processing technology, or have properties tailored for specific applications.
Many nickel and nickel alloys meet the compositional standards of the Unified Numbering System (UNS), a specification established by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), and metal trade associations such as the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI). The UNS assigns metals and alloys a lettered prefix and a five-digit number. Nickel and nickel alloys belong to the UNS N category and have designations such as UNS N02200. Other standards for nickel and nickel alloys include casting grades, European Norm (EN), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) standards, and U.S. military specifications (MIL-SPEC). QQ and QQS prefixes are used to designate specific MIL-SPEC metals.
Suppliers provide nickel and nickel alloys in many stock shapes and forms. Semi-finished stock shapes are suitable for part fabrication by machining, assembly, or other processes. They are also used as feedstock for casting, forging, and spinning. Common stock shapes and forms for nickel and nickel alloys include bars, rods, tubes, plates, profiles, sheets, strips, shims, spheres, foil, wire, billets, slabs, and blooms. Materials are also supplied as billets, ingots, powders, fillers, and reinforcements. Round, hexagonal, coil, and hollow stock are also available. There are two basic types of anodes. Plating anodes are used in plating or electroplating processes. Sacrificial anodes are used to protect stainless steel or other metal structures from corrosion.
Selecting nickel and aluminum alloys requires an analysis of dimensions, production processes, and performance features. Outer diameter (OD), inner diameter (ID), overall length, and overall thickness are important dimensions. Most materials are cast, wrought, extruded, forged, cold-finished, hot-rolled, or formed by compacting powdered metals or alloys. Performance features for nickel and nickel alloys include resistance to corrosion, heat, and wear.
Nickel Alloy Grades – Chemical Composition
|Alloy #||Cr||Ni||C||Mn. Max.||Si Max.||P Max.||S Max.||Other Elements|
|Carpenter 20Cb-3||20.0||35.0||0.06 Max.||2.0||1.0||0.035||0.035||Cu 3.5, Mo 2.5, Nb+Ta 8xC Min/1.0 Max|
|Haynes 25 (L605)||20.0||10.0||0.05/0.15||2.0||1.0||....||....||Co 50.0, W 15.0|
|Hastelloy B-2||1.0||68.0||0.02 Max.||1.0||0.10||0.04||0.03||Mo 28.0, Co 1.0|
|C-276||15.5||57.0||0.02 Max.||1.0||0.08||0.03||0.03||Mo 16.0|
|Hastelloy X||21.8||47.5||0.05/0.15||1.0||1.0||0.04||0.03||Mo 9.0, Co 1.5|
|Inconel 600||15.50||76.0||0.15 Max.||....||....||....||....||..........|
|Inconel 601||23.0||60.5||0.10 Max.||....||....||....||....||Al 1.00/1.70|
|Inconel 625||21.5||61.0||0.10 Max.||....||....||....||....||Mo 9.0, Nb+Ta 3.6|
|Inconel 718||19.0||52.5||0.08 Max.||....||....||....||....||Mo 3.0, Nb+Ta 5.1|
|Incoloy 800||21.0||32.5||0.10 Max.||....||....||....||....||..........|
|Monel 400||.....||66.5||0.30 Max.||....||....||....||....||Cu 31.5|
|Nickel 200||.....||99.6||0.15 Max.||....||....||....||....||..........|
|Nickel 201||.....||99.6||0.02 Max.||....||....||....||....||..........|
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